Equally as important was the Roman Catholic Church. More than 90 secular schools existed in 1820, but these elite institutions relied on student fees and patron donations. Cuba: Dollar Crunch, Dollarization and Devaluation, Cuba’s Uncertain Revenues from Medical Exports, Exit and Participation: Responses to Declining Membership in Small Civil Society Organizations, The Misery of Cuban Merchandise Exports and the Sustainability of the Balance of Payments, Remittances to Cuba Revisited: Impact of New Measures. Education in Cuba has been a highly ranked system for many years. With a literacy rate of approximately 99 percent, Cuba is unique within Latin America and the Third World in general (UNESCO 1995). Cuba invested heavily to make its education system world class. Cuba remains an outpost of socialism in a "nonsocialist world" (Lutjens 1998). Major upheavals of this period—freeing of slaves in 1868 and the Ten Years War, the first War for Independence—rendered these decrees moot. For example, only $1800 was budgeted for all school inspectors in 1880 to travel throughout the country to enforce compulsory attendance. The nature of its socialism has changed, but the commitment to universal education remains a point of national pride. 297, series 1900, and modified Order No. Cuba was colonized by Spain from the early 16th century until 1898, when the island was ceded to the United States following the Spanish–American War. Cuba remains an outpost of socialism in a "nonsocialist world" (Lutjens 1998). All Rights Reserved As a result, few students remained in public school beyond age 10. The average child progressed only to the second grade, and only 17 percent of students attended high school. Following the 1961 campaign, illiteracy fell from 25 percent to 4 percent and, unlike other Third World efforts that rendered short-term benefits before reversing, have remained low. Seeking to infuse attributes of the American educational system into Cuba, Wood hired Cuban educators and administrators versed in the U.S. model of education. The first institution of higher education, the University of Havana, was established in 1728. One stereotype of education in Cuba is that there is still an extremely high illiteracy rate, this is untrue. Education follows healthcare in social priorities, the party/state apparatus is still responsible for the education and professional training of Cuban citizens (Baez, 2004, p. 160). Education Encyclopedia - StateUniversity.comGlobal Education ReferenceCuba - History Background, Constitutional Legal Foundations, Educational System—overview, Preprimary Primary Education, Secondary Education, Copyright © 2020 Web Solutions LLC. Primary education gets great priority in the country. Basic Secondary Education today. The law also mandated schooling for children aged 6 to 14. U.S. Marxist pedagogy came to dominate Cuba’s educational system shortly after the Revolution of 1959. Children and more than happy to go to school, they never miss classes and get on well with their classmates. Batista Period: Under dictator Fulgencio Batista in the 1950s, roughly 50 percent of the school-aged population did not attend school, and expenditures were concentrated in urban areas to the exclusion of rural provinces (MacDonald 1985). The Platt Amendment, creating a permanent U.S. military presence in Cuba, solidified that control in 1901. However, home-tutored students of the affluent were exempted from sharing facilities and conditions with the children of small business owners, workers, and peasants. Only about 90,000 out of 550,000 Cuban children attended school. By the 1980s and 1990s, the country’s educational disbursements as a ratio of gross domestic product were among the … After the 1959 Revolution, two major education-related goals emerged: making education available to all and connecting this new educational system to socioeconomic development (Gillette 1972). Achieving these goals required a new national educational system that could educate a largely illiterate population. Education is a very important issue in Cuba and the infrastructure is also very strong. Similar topics were included in the student text, providing both a point of departure for literacy instruction and educating the masses about the foundations of the new social order. Few poor or minority students received free instruction in public or religious schools. Junior and senior high schools were closed for an entire year as the campaign mobilized an unprecedented 274,000 volunteer literacy workers, including students, workers, women not in the workforce, and trained teachers, who taught an identified 979,000 illiterate people. However, as the Royal Economic Society reported in 1793, learning was confined to private tutoring (for elite families) and church-based schools with limited curriculum and poorly-trained teachers (de Varona 1993). From the first Spanish settlements in 1511 through 1898, Cuban education was typical of Spanish-speaking Latin America: a combination of parochial and secular institutions supporting and supported by the affluent Roman Catholic Spanish colonial elite. There are several schools in Cuba. The University of Havana, founded in 1727, is the oldest university in Cuba and one of the oldest in the American continent. Report of the Republic to Cuba to the 45th International Conference on Public Education. Havana: Ministry of Education, 1996. He reorganized secondary and vocational schools and promoted practical knowledge in universities by introducing engineering and architecture. As Arthur Gillette discussed in his book Cuba's Educational Revolution, reaction against the inadequacies of pre-Revolutionary education (a dynamic of class inequity and reproduction, a labor force unsuited to the modern economy, and societal alienation) shaped the revolution's educational goals.
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