However, non-naturalized foreign-born women—like their native-born counterparts—experience a wage gap that further reduces their earnings. [101], The European Commission has stated that the undervaluation of female work is one of the main contributors to the persisting gender pay gap. 2, 37–68. Petersen, Trond, Vermund Snartland, and Eva M. Meyersson Milgrom. [140][needs update], In October 2014, the UK Equality Act 2010 was augmented with regulations which require Employment Tribunals to order an employer (except an existing micro-business or a new business) to carry out an equal pay audit where the employer is found to have breached equal pay law. [82], Ian Watson of Macquarie University examined the gender pay gap among full-time managers in Australia over the period 2001–2008, and found that between 65 and 90% of this earnings differential could not be explained by a large range of demographic and labor market variables. Notes: Includes individuals older than 16. Davis, Alyssa, and Elise Gould. Here education is measured on a mutually exclusive five-point scale: workers who have less than a high school diploma, those who have completed high school but no further schooling, those who have some college experience but have not earned a college degree, those who have earned a college degree, and those with advanced degrees. This means that—even if men and women are equally productive per hour—individuals in these firms who are more likely to work a very high number of weekly hours and be available at particular off hours are paid more. Civil society groups organize awareness campaigns that include activities such as Equal Pay Day or the equal pay for equal work movement to increase the public attention received by the gender pay gap. “Migration Decisions within Dual-Earner Partnerships: A Test of Bargaining Theory.” Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. [67] Legal prohibition of discriminatory behavior, however, can only be effective if it is enforced. Economic Policy Institute. The notion is that if we can control for these factors, the wage gap will shrink, and what is left can be attributed to discrimination. Number and Real Median Earnings of Total Workers and Full-Time, Year-Round Workers by Sex and Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio: 1960 to 2015, Program on Race, Ethnicity, and the Economy • PREE, Economic Analysis and Research Network • EARN. This weakens their earnings power, and as a result, women have less retirement wealth than men, both in traditional pensions and employer savings accounts such as 401(k)s. In 2010, women’s income from defined-benefit employer pensions was about 33 percent less than men’s (Brown et al.). Jobs at EPI [90] The research suggests that as supply chain managers move up the corporate ladder, they are less likely to be female. 2016. Many researches are concerned with this regulations. Women, however, were much less likely to be perceived as putting work first. This suggests that cultural norms influence girls’ confidence which in turn influences their success (Herbert and Stipek 2005). Income and Poverty in the United States: 2015: Table A-4. [38] According to Harvard Economist, Claudia Goldin, by and large women receive equal pay for equal work in the US. It is due to factors that are otherwise difficult to measure—which could include not only discrimination but also differences in productivity that are unrelated to influences such as educational level and experience. Gender and Dynamic Agency: Theory and Evidence on the Compensation of Top Executives. Further out from their schooling the gap grows: after 10 years, 10 percent of men had experienced a career interruption, compared with 32 percent of women experiencing a career interruption nine years out. For example, women’s choice of college major or occupation is conditioned on how well educated in science and math they were in college and even before. have speculated, will favor women. But when workers have more temporal flexibility—that is, more choice as to the schedules and number of hours they work—the gender gap narrows. She is a co-author of The State of Working America, 12th Edition. This figure is representative of the uncontrolled — or … [34], A 2017 study by the US National Science Foundation's annual census revealed pay gaps in different areas of science: there is a much larger proportion of men in higher-paying fields such as mathematics and computer science, the two highest-paying scientific fields. So while foreign-born workers overall are disadvantaged in terms of wages, non-naturalized foreign-born women are additionally disadvantaged by the gender wage gap. Women age 65 and older are 80 percent more likely than their male counterparts to be living in poverty (Brown et al.). Nonprofit Professional Employees Union. For typical working men, hourly wages rise until around the age of 45 and then plateau, but for typical working women, hourly wages top off earlier (in the 35 to 44 age range). President Obama’s White House was obsessed with that ridiculous 80-cent number. This contrasts with the decades before about 1980, when wage growth and productivity growth were closely linked. Unfortunately, this means that about 30 percent of the reduction was due to the decline in men’s wages. Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata (CPS ORG). Part of Explained In Poland, women earn 91 cents to every dollar a man earns. The ABC of Gender Equality in Education: Aptitude, Behavior, Confidence. Golden, Lonnie. Similarly, the gender gap in annual earnings ranges from 65.3 percent in Louisiana to 89.5 percent in Washington, D.C. (NWLC 2015). In Brazil, under law, female workers may opt to take 6 months of maternity leave that must be fully paid by the employer. These groups both tend to be subject to lower paying jobs from a statistical perspective. Reid, Erin. More than 40 percent of workers are in occupations in which more than three-fourths of workers are of one gender. Such rigorous work schedules tend to weigh disproportionately heavily on women, who are still responsible for more housework and child/elder care than men.

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