27.6: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution. (pp. Nitration is the usual way that nitro groups are introduced into aromatic rings. Chapter 19: Benzene and Aromatic Substitution Reactions [Sections: 18.2, 18.6; 19.1-19.12] Nomenclature of Substituted Benzenes i. Monosubstituted Benzenes Cl CH 2CH3 NO ii. The reaction of a substituted ring with an activating group is faster than benzene. This is known as the ortho-para directing effect. The ion formed in this step isn't the final product. They reported the following observations: In looking at the table, you might see that there are two groups of substituents. However, the end result will be different. 3) Alkylation Reactions: AKA Friedel- Crafts alkylation. •with 2 substituents, either the ortho, meta, para- terminology OR locant values may be used Problems: 1. Benzene resists addition reactions because that would involve breaking the delocalisation and losing that stability. Two of the electrons in the delocalised system are attracted towards the X+ and form a bond with it. The activating group directs the reaction to the ortho or para position, … The activating group directs the reaction to the ortho or para position, which means the electrophile substitute the hydrogen that is on carbon 2 or carbon 4. Boston: W. H. Freeman & Company, 2007. 5. The unpaired pair of electrons gets donated to the ring, but the inductive effect pulls away the s electrons from the ring by the electronegativity of the halogens. Here may be small amounts of ortho– and para– products, but these groups are best described as “meta-directors”. •if a continuous chain attached to a benzene ring exceeds 6 carbons, the benzene ring becomes a substituent off of the parent alkyl chain. The order of reactivity among Halogens from the more reactive (least deactivating substituent) to the least reactive (most deactivating substituent) halogen is: The order of reactivity of the benzene rings toward the electrophilic substitution when it is substituted with a halogen groups, follows the order of electronegativity. That is, they control where the new substituent appears in the product. The other group reacts to make mostly meta-substituted products. On the other hand, a substituted ring with a deactivated group is slower than benzene. The catalyst is either aluminum chloride (or aluminum bromide if you are reacting benzene with bromine) or iron. The direction of the reaction. Don't worry about this at the moment - it's much easier to see when you've got a real example in front of you. Predict the product of the following two sulfonation reactions: 4. Here we've introduced a new ion, Y-. The deactivating group directs the reaction to the meta position, which means the electrophile substitute the hydrogen that is on carbon 3 with the exception of the halogens that is a deactivating group but directs the ortho or para substitution. Alkyl groups are weakly ring-activating groups, as their electron-donating ability stems only from weak inductive effects. The deactivating groups deactivate the ring by the inductive effect in the presence of an electronegative atom that withdraws the electrons away from the ring. Substituents that make the benzene moor electron-poor can retard the reaction. Nitrobenzene, C6H5NO2, undergoes the reaction millions of times more slowly. One effect may be stronger in one case than the other, so it wins out in one case and loses in another. Examples of deactivating groups in the relative order from the most deactivating to the least deactivating: -NO2, -CF3> -COR, -CN, -CO2R, -SO3H > Halogens. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Substituents with heteroatoms connected to the aromatic ring are significantly more ring-activating than alkyl groups, because resonance electron-donating effects are possible. Other groups may be π-acceptors, drawing electron density away from the ring via resonance. The ring that is substituted with the most electronegative halogen is the most reactive ring ( less deactivating substituent ) and the ring that is substituted with the least electronegatvie halogen is the least reactive ring ( more deactivating substituent ), when we compare rings with halogen substituents. Nitric acid accepts the proton in an acid‐base reaction. Isomerism in disubstituted benzenes can be described by numbering the substituents (1,2- etc) or by the relationships ortho-, meta– and para-. There is still delocalisation in the intermediate formed, but it only covers part of the ion. In another example of an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction, benzene reacts with a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids to create nitrobenzene. Benzene is represented by this symbol, where the circle represents the delocalised electrons, and each corner of the hexagon has a carbon atom with a hydrogen attached. Also the size of the halogen effects the reactivity of the benzene ring that the halogen is attached to. 15.6: Synthetic parallel - electrophilic aromatic substitution in the lab. In these reactions, the electrophiles are polar molecules rather than fully positive ions. Because of the delocalised electrons exposed above and below the plane of the rest of the molecule, benzene is obviously going to be highly attractive to electrophiles - species which seek after electron rich areas in other molecules. Generation of electrophile: Due to the presence of Lewis acid, generation of electrophile takes place. 3. Where did this come from? Missed the LibreFest? By which effect does trichloride effect a monosubstituted ring? Suppose the electrophile is a positive ion X+. Electrophilic aromatic substitution is an organic reaction in which an atom that is attached to an aromatic system (usually hydrogen) is replaced by an electrophile.Some of the most important electrophilic aromatic substitutions are aromatic nitration, aromatic halogenation, aromatic sulfonation, and alkylation and acylation Friedel–Crafts reaction.

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